Flora and Fauna
Kozhikode is blessed with wild and marine life. Though wild elephants and bisons are occasionally seen in the forests, tigers and leopards are rare. Barking deer, Mouse deer, Mountain lizards, Malabar squirrels, black and grey monkeys, hares and porcupines are found in the forests. The avions are well represented by horn bills, peacocks, jungle fowls, thrushes, pigeons, sunbirds, kingfishers, wood peckers, paradise fly catches, parrots, mynahs, king crows, etc. Snakes, poisonous and non poisonous, are seen in the forests in fairly large numbers, Pythons are also common.
The natural forests fall under three main categories; the southern tropical moist deciduous, western tropical wet ever green and semi evergreen.
The principlel tropical moist deciduous forest species are Terminalia Paniculata, Dillenia, Pentagyna, Miliusa Veutina, Schrebra Suretenoides (all inhabiting species) etc; Bamboods Bambusa, Arundanaclac, Callicarpalanta, Cacsalpintia Minussoides etc. (under growth); Butea Parviflora, Celastrus Paniculaters (Climbers) etc.
The principle western tropical wet evergreen species are Pakquium ellipticum, Salmalia, Malabarica, Mappila Foetida (inhabiting species top canopy layer) Canarium Strictum, Chrysophyllum Rexhurghi, Oleadiocea, Canes, Wild arrow roots, Screwpines etc.
Eco Tourism Sector:
The forest areas that has entered into the promotion of ecotourism are:-
Thusharagiri waterfalls which literally means snow capped mountains , has the presence of three majestic waterfalls and is the ideal destination to unwind your spirits and spend a nostalgic holiday.It is at a distance of 55 kms from kozhikode.
2. Kalaman Para Maruthilavu Tourist Spot:
A beautiful forest area .
Location- 50 kms away from Kozhikode City in the Kozhikode-Wynad National Highway at Chippilithodu.
3. Kakkad Eco Tourism Centre:
Location- 40 kms away from Kozhikode City in the Kozhikode-Wynad National Highway at Eangapuzha.
Attractions: Variety of birds, animals and butterflies, Medicinal plants, Rivers .Treking facility is an added attraction of this palce.
4. Kolamala Eco Tourism:
Location- 40 kms away from Kozhikode City in the Kozhikode-Wynad National Highway at Eangapuzha and travel 2 kms West to reach this centre .
Attractions: Variety of birds, animals and butterflies and Medicinal plants. Trucking facility to Kolamala, Koompan mala and Choyiyodu mala. Services of experienced guides are available.
The important rivers of the district are the following:
1. The Mahe river
The Mahe river, also called the Mayyazhippuzha, originates from the forests on the western slopes of the Wayanad hills. This river flows through the villages of Narippetta, Vanimel, Iyyancode, Bhekiyad, Iringanoor, Tripangathur, Peringalam, Edachery, Kacheri, Eramala, Kariyyad, Olavilam; Kunnamakkara, Azhiyoor and Mahe, before emptying into the Arabian Sea at the former French Settlement of Mahe, about 6 kms. South of Thalassery. The length of the river is about 54 kms. And it flows through an area of 394 sq.kms.
2. The Murad (Kuttiady) river
The Murad river, also known as the Kuttiady river, takes its origin from the Narikkotta ranges on the western slopes of the Wayanad hills, a part of Westerm Ghats. This river flows through Vadakara, Koyilandy and Kozhikode Taluks. It empties into the Arabian Sea at the historical Kottakkal fort, 7 kms. South of Vadakara. This river has a length of 74 kms. And along with its tributaries it flows through an area of 583 sq.kms.
The Onipuzha, the Thottilpalampuzha, the Kadiyangad puzha, the Vamathil puzha and the madappallippuzha are the major tributaris of Murad river. It passes through oorakuzhi, Kuttiady, Tiruvallur, Muyipoth, Maniyur and Karuvancheri.
3. The Korapuzha
The Korapuzha river is formed by the confluence of two streams called Punnurpuzha and Agalapuzha, this river and it is main tributaries are tidal in their lower reaches. The Agalapuzha is more or less a backwater, while the Punnurpuzha originates from Arikkankunnu. The Agalapuzha forms a part of the important West Coast Inland Navigation System. There is heavy traffic through this river connecting all important industrial towns lying in the coastal areas such as Vadakara, Kozhikode, Kallai, beypore etc. The total length of the river is 40 kms. With a drainage area of 624 sq.kms.
4. The Kallai river
The river has its origin from Cherukulathur village and it is connected to the Chaliyar on the south by a man-made canal. The river passes through Cherukulathur, Kovur, Olavanna, Manava and Kallai before finally joining the Arabian Sea at Kozhikode. The length of the river is 22 kms. And it has a drainage area of 96 sq.kms.
Though small in size, the kallai is one of the most important rivers in the entire State from the commercial point of view, Kallai, a main centre of timber trade, is situated on its banks.
5. The Chaliyar River
Known in the lower reaches as the Beypore river, this is one of the major rivers of the State. The lower reaches form part of the West Coast Inland Navigation system.
It originates from the Illambalari hills in Gudalur taluk of Nilgiri district in Tamil Nadu. The Chalippuzha, the Punnapuzha, the Pandiyar, the Karimpuzha, the Vadapurampuzha, the Iringipuzha and the Iruthilpuzha are its important tributaries.
As an interstate river, this has a total drainage area of 2923 sq.kms, of which 2535 sq.kms. lie in Kerala and the rest, 388 sq.kms. in Tamil Nadu. With a length of 169 kms., the Chaliyar river flows through Nilambur, Mambad, Edavanna, Areecode and Vazhakkad in Malappuram district and Feroke in Kozhikode district before it joins the Arabian Sea near Beypore.
6. The Kadalundi river
The Kadalundi river, also known by the names, Karimpuzha and Oravanpurampuzha is formed by the confluence of its two main tributaries, the Olipuzha and the Veliyar. The Olipuzha takes its origin from the Cherakkombanmala and the Veliyar from the forests of Erattakombanmala. The total length of this river is 130 kms, with a drainage area of 1,099 sq.kms. The river flows towards the Chaliyar and joins the Arabian Sea at about 5 kms. south of the Chaliyar river mouth.
The Pooraparamba river, a small stream, is also included in this basin, as its length is only 8 kms. With a drainage area of 23 sq.kms. The total drainage area of the basin is thus 1122 sq.kms.